HIRAM BINGHAM IV * LIST OF DOCUMENTS

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THE DOCUMENTS LISTED BELOW WILL SHOW:

 

I.       EVIDENCE OF HIRAM BINGHAM IV’S LIFE SAVING ACTIONS.

 

II.              EVIDENCE OF HIRAM BINGHAM IV’S ACTIONS CONTRARY TO HIS   SUPERIOR’S ORDERS.

 

III.           EVIDENCE OF HIRAM BINGHAM IV’S UNDERSTANDING OF THE EXTREME SITUATION, GIVING HIM MOTIVATION TO HELP.

 

IV.            EVIDENCE OF THE NUMBERS OF REFUGEES SEEKING HIS HELP.

 

V.               EVIDENCE OF DANGER TO DIPLOMATS HELPING JEWS.

 

VI.            EVIDENCE OF HIRAM BINGHAM IV’s EFFORTS TO HALT NAZI INFLUX INTO SOUTH AMERICA and that HE FELT ANTI-SEMITISM WAS PART OF THE  “NAZI DISEASE.”

 

VII.        EVIDENCE OF HIRAM BINGHAM IV’s DISAPPOINTMENT OVER BEING PASSED OVER FOR PROMOTIONS, POSSIBLY DUE TO HIS INDEPENDENT ANTI-NAZI EFFORTS.

 

VIII.     EVIDENCE OF EVENTS RECOGNIZING HIRAM BINGHAM IV’S LIFE SAVING ACTIONS.

 

IX.            EVIDENCE AND PHOTOS THAT CAN BE SEEN ON A WEBSITE HONORING HIRAM BINGHAM IV.

X.      EVIDENCE OF SOME OF THE NEWSPAPER ARTICLES HONORING HIRAM BINGHAM IV’S DEEDS.


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I.  EVIDENCE OF HIRAM BINGHAM IV’s LIFE SAVING ACTIONS:

 

  1. M. Friedrich HEINE LETTER, says to HB IV:  “Thanks to you and your understanding of the situation, probably more than 1,000 refugees have been saved.”

 

  1. LETTERS FROM FEUCHTWANTER, CHAGALL and others reveal Hiram Bingham’s crucial part in their rescues.  (See letters below.)

 

  1. Varian FRY BOOK INSCRIPTION notes:  “To Hiram Bingham, Jr.  Partner in the ‘crime’ of saving human lives.”  (Fry is credited with saving over 1500 lives, and he calls Bingham not just a helper, but a “partner,” in this work.)

 

  1. FRY MANUSCIPT expresses essential work of Hiram Bingham IV “His going…may seriously cripple our work” (see excerpt at page 534, below):

 

VARIAN FRY MANUSCRIPT PRAISES HARRY’S RESCUE WORK

Friday August 8, 2003
Bill Endicott wrote:

On Wednesday, August 6, Abbie [Abigail Bingham Endicott, daughter of Hiram Bingham IV and wife of William] and I made another trip to see Elizabeth Berman [retired from Holocaust Museum]. During the course of that conversation, she ... loaned us some more documents. [W]hen you look through the documents below, you will see Varian Fry's own words praising Harry for using his discretion liberally in issuing visas when others would not.

Elizabeth also loaned us many pages Xeroxed from the original manuscript of Varian Fry's book "Surrender Upon Demand," which goes into more detail in many instances than the book itself does. The manuscript is in the possession of the Rare Book and Manuscript Section of the Columbia University Library, Bernard Kristol, curator, 212 854 8481.]:

Excerpt at Page 10: The text of article 19, as cabled from Berlin by the Associated Press, read as follows: “All German war and civil prisoners in French custody, including those under arrest and convicted who were seized and sentenced because of acts in favor of [should this be "against"? - ed] the German Reich, shall be surrendered immediately to German troops.  The French Government is obliged to surrender upon demand, all Germans named by the German Government in France, as well as in French possessions, Colonies, Protectorate, Territories and Mandates. The French Government binds itself to prevent removal of German war and civil prisoners from France into French possessions or into foreign countries. Regarding prisoners already taken outside of France, as well as sick and wounded German prisoners who cannot be transported, exact lists with the places of residence are to be produced. The German High Command assumes care of sick and wounded German war prisoners.”

NOTE:  FEUCHTWANGER IS CALLED PUBLIC ENEMY NO. 1 TO THE NAZIS:

Excerpt at Page 62: “Everyone agreed that it was going to be extremely hard to save Feuchtwanger, wherever he was. He was Public Enemy No. 1 to the Nazis, they thought.” [This is the man Harry Bingham hid in his home – see below, ed.]

NOTE:  FRY SPEAKS OF THE LOSS FROM HARRY’S GOING:

Excerpt at Page 534: “Wednesday, May 7. Harry Bingham told me this morning that he has just received instructions to go to Lisbon. He is closing his house and packing his things.  His going will be a great loss to the refugees, and may seriously cripple our work. He has been [NOTE PARTICULARLY: ] the one man at the Consulate who had always seemed to understand that his job now is not to apply the rules rigidly but to save lives whenever he could without actually violating United States law. Without his help, much of what we have done we could [not] have done. Especially since the opening of the Martinique route, he has worked very hard, minimizing formalities and always showing a sympathetic attitude towards candidates for immigration. His behavior has always been in sharp contrast to that of most other American Consuls in France. I hate to think what it is going to be like here after he has gone.” [Emphasis added. – ed.]

Excerpt at Page 556: “Sunday, May 25.  The new man in charge of visas at the Marseille Consulate is young and inexperienced. This is his first post. Afraid of making mistakes, he tries to solve his problems by refusing visas whenever he can. But he is also a snob. The other day I talked to him about just two cases, both women. One was a German Social Democratic underground worker. She had a good affidavit. The other was the Countess X. She has no affidavit at all.  B______ refused to give a visa to the German political refugee.  ‘How do I know she won't do underground work in the United States if I let her in?’ he asked.  But when I mentioned the Countess X he became sweet as honey.  ‘Oh, I'm sure there'll be no difficulty about her visa’, he said.  ‘Just tell her to come in any time she wants to and ask to see me personally. I'll fix her up right away.’ He didn't even ask what the Countess's politics were.  She got her visa the next day.”

[Once again, very detailed Fry description of Harry's value in comparison with what came after he left. – Bill Endicott]


Letter from Martha Sharp

Letter to Martha Sharp


II.  EVIDENCE OF HIRAM BINGHAM IV’S ACTIONS CONTRARY TO HIS   SUPERIOR’S ORDERS:

 

1.      TAPED HBIV INTERVIEW with his granddaughter, Tiffany M. Bingham:

(Transcript Page 5) HB IV:  “…my boss who was the Consul General at that time, said, ‘The Germans are going to win the war.  Why should we do anything to offend them?’  And he didn’t want to give any visas to ‘these Jewish people.’  So, in a way, I had to do as much as I could.”

 

2.      Program from AMERICAN FOREIGN SERVICE ASSOCIATION, Posthumous AWARD for “CONSTRUCTIVE DISSENT.” Presented by Secretary of State Colin Powell on June 27, 2002, credited Hiram Bingham IV with 2500 life-saving visas to Jews and other anti-Nazi activists.  The program reads:  “His actions violated the State Department anti-refugee policy…” and showed “his willingness to put humanity before his career…”

 

3.      FEUCHTWANGER/WETCHEEK case.  The noted German anti-Nazi writer, Leon Feuchtwanger, was on the Gestapo arrest list.  Hiram Bingham IV, not only issued him a visa under a false name, he hid him illegally in his house.  The facts are documented in Fuechtwanger’s own diary, in German.  William T. Endicott has translated a portion below:

 

AUTHOR FEUCHTWANGER'S DIARY ENTRIES WHILE HIDING IN HARRY'S MARSEILLE RESIDENCE: [In these passages it seems pretty clear that, among other things: Harry was part of an "underground railroad," engaged in smuggling people out of Europe. People who belonged to this conspiracy were filing in and out of his house as though they were on conveyor belts. * Harry Bingham was participating in discussions of all sorts of illegal activities. * He issued a fake visa for Lion Feuchtwanger under the alias of Mr. Wetcheek.  It is clear Bingham knew he was in danger. – Bill Endicott.

TRANSLATION OF FEUCHTWANGER DIARY 1940 - SELECTED ENTRIES, Original German version courtesy of Feuchtwanger Memorial Library, Specialized Libraries and Archival Collections, University of Southern California]:

Marseille, Monday 22 July: Bingham is an awkward, friendly, puritanical, dutiful, somewhat sad New Englander, who is very attached to his wife. He very much misses her and his children who have been removed to America. The servants are bad and not very friendly. Bingham tells about all the work that emigrants are making for him. He is always tired and exhausted.

Marseille, Sunday, 28 July: With Bingham personal understanding is getting better. Towards evening, however, while I am speaking with him, he gets a telephone call from his consul-general, which puts him into a sharp conversation. It's about a quite unimportant matter, but he is totally troubled, and I fear that my own thing will be unfavorably influenced by this coincidence. Nevertheless, he explains very confidentially about his difficult position in the Consulate, and our personal relations improve.

Marseille, Monday 29 July: At noon Lilo arrives. In the camp on the day of my abduction French officers, who were supposed to bring me away, were looking for me. When they can't find me, there is great excitement and poor Wolf is suspected of an abduction in collaboration with the Nazis. Everything a bit dark. Lilo's husband is in Sanary [French town where Feuchtwanger had been living for 8 years -- ed]. In our house a certain Joachim, a refugee is also lodging. In the evening Bingham is in a happier mood. For the moment, his clash with the consul-general has had no consequences. General conversation about national economic problems.

Sunday, 4 August: Bingham hints that I should leave, he fears that it will be too dangerous for him if I stay too long in his house. After that he made a portrait of me. I read. Worked. Bingham expresses regret and explains that of course he still wants to keep me here.

Monday, 5 August: Just after she [Marta- ed] left, my tent friend Wolf [a fellow transit camp internee - ed] telephones. That's very pleasant. It's also good that the maid believes that the caller is Golo Mann and not Wolf, because Bingham is not supposed to know that with the exception of Golo Mann, no one knows that I am living in his house.

Wednesday, 7 August: Slept very badly. Wonderful weather. Standish and his wife are there for breakfast, I am awkward. Then, quite unexpectedly, Lilo arrives with her husband.  She says it is too dangerous for me to return to Sanary and advises that I should dog Bingham as long as possible and that I should try hard to obtain a fake French document. But Mr. Brousse, through whose intervention that might work, is not here. In the afternoon, spoke to kind Loewenbein, but he also had no advice. In the evening Standish is here again; he wants to speak with a flyer about whether he would perhaps fly me to Portugal.

Saturday, 10 August: At noon come Bingham and Standish. The latter explains that it won't work with the fake papers, they cost 50,000 Franks.

Sunday, 11 August:   At noon Bingham brings the man from the American Federation of Labor [Frank Bohn? - ed]. He explains that with regular procedures there is absolutely nothing that can be done. But he wants to put a smuggling boat at my disposal. Everything very adventurous but not quite hopeless.

Marseille, Monday, 12 August: Wonderful weather. Slept OK. The prospect of escape lifts my mood, but the impending hardships and dangers make me nervous. Worry about whether I can take Marta with me. But Bingham takes it as obvious. Worked a bit. Saturday, 17 August I try to suggest to Bingham that he should give me a visa with the name Wetcheek. He goes along with it and is happy that he thought of it himself. We have a lively conversation.

Then Bohn phones, and shares that the boat will indeed go, wants gas from the Wolfs. Bohn and another American from his people, Fry, eat here in the evening. Many problems emerge. Gabbed quite a lot with Bingham.

Thursday, 29 August: Bingham in a bad mood. I did not sleep long enough. A lot of unpleasant little things to think about. Then Wolf arrives and reports that the whole story with the exit visa and Toulouse has gone out the window and that they will probably be keeping careful watch on Mrs. Wetcheek and Mrs. Feuchtwanger. Big panic. Back and forth, what should one do if someone comes to Bingham inquiring about Wetcheek and so forth. A half hour later he calls, everything is over. It turns out that it certainly is not so simple but rather that the people with our passes have been arrested and now a big bribe must be paid to the police. Then Heinrich Mann arrives and reports in a depressed manner that the story about the boat come to naught again. Then I'm supposed to meet an influential communist, but instead of that Kantorowicz stands in for him. Very tired. Evening with Bingham and Fry who comes late. I let the meal pass by without inquiring what exactly is wrong. Then I ask, and it turns out that the boat is not going and never will go. Instead of this, Fry suggests that we should under his protection simply go over the Spanish border illegally. The plan immediately takes shape and I quickly agree without delay. A lot of individual technical difficulties, but I am in a good mood because finally there is a tangible plan...

 

4.      THANK YOU LETTER FROM FEUCHTWANGER/WETCHEEK:  Feuchtwanger wrote a thank you to HB IV in letter under pen name of “Wetcheek” as was used in the visa Hiram Bingham IV gave him to escape France, after hiding in the home of HB IV.  (See transcript of HBIV interview (number 1 above) and Foreign Service Journal, June 2002 page 20, as well as the for more details on the Feuchtwanger/Wetcheek rescue.  Feuchtwanger was already in Bingham’s house when Varian Fry arrived in France.  Feuchtwanger/Wetcheek writes from the ship on which he is sailing to the US, in his own hand, a letter found in the Bingham family home:  (See below)

 

[Printed Letter Head:]                                          American Export Lines

                                                                  On Board

                                                   S. S. EXCALIBUR

 

My dear Harry Bingham,                                                28th Sept. [1940]

            Well, here I am, I can not [sic] believe it yet.  Now, I should have to write a nice letter full of thanks, but I will not, I think, it does not need, you know exactly what I am feeling for you.  Let me only repeat that it was a great chance that it was not Mr. X or Mr. Y, in whose house I had to face these bad days, but yours.  I ever shall remember with pleasure those some good talks we had.

            When you will get this letter, you certainly will be informed how all happened.  It was a great stress all at all, [sic] I feel a little exhausted, I miss my things, I have only this famous rucksack, but I feel happy.

            Well, I hope to see you soon in America , and meantimes, [sic] I should be glad to hear from you.  For your stay in Europe have a so [sic] good time as possible, give my greetings to Elisabeth and Fanny and have sometimes a friendly thought of mine. [sic]

                                                                        Yours for ever

                                                                        Wetcheek

 

5.      Marc CHAGALL letter in 1941, revealing deep emotions and ongoing  relationship to the unnamed (because dangerous to name him) “bon ami,” Hiram Bingham.  (This letter is from the personal letters found in the Bingham family home after Hiram Bingham IV’s death.)  The letter is written in Chagall’s own hand, in French.  Here is the English translation by Hiram Bingham’s daughter, Abigail Bingham Endicott with help from a French neighbor, Laurent Durix:  (See below.)

 

[Printed Letter Head:]                                              GORDES [Vaucluse]

                                                                                                     le15/III 41

 

Our good friend

Your good letter has touched us infinitely.

And what splendid photos!

Thank you with all our hearts.

We had a great deal of pleasure in spending with you these last two days.

Alas, the hours slipped away too fast and we are left very sad after your departure.

We keep a touching memory of your short stay and your beautiful photos revive it even more.

We will always be happy to see you.

Until very soon!

                                                                                             Most sincerely,

                                                                                               The Chagall’s

 

6.      Lillian WINKLER STUART SMITH LETTER: Family was refused visas by American consulate in Lyon, but HB IV helped this family of the publisher of anti-Nazi articles. Calls HB IV “a most generous and courageous man.”

                                  (See Foreign Service Journal, June 2002, page 22.)

 

7.      Pierre and Walter Shostal letters:  Were approved for one visa only until HB IV “jumped the hurdle” and gave a single visa for the whole family.

 

8.      Letter from Fred Altmann:  Very moving letter of thanks for HB IV’s “Heart and Soul”, and his “conception of humanity…” in recognizing the situation and writing a letter of introduction.  Altmann plans to write a “little work” called “Triumph of Humanity”


III.  EVIDENCE OF HIRAM BINGHAM IV’S UNDERSTANDING OF THE EXTREME SITUATION, GIVING HIM MOTIVATION TO HELP:

 

Appendix IV of his Report on the Concentration Camps in France, revealing numbers of people dying in them.

 

1.      Maps, his drawings and reports on desperate conditions in the camps.

 

2.       Transcript of his interview with Tiffany M. Bingham:

 

a.    Page 4: “just before the war, my wife and I had made a trip to Germany and had seen the broken windows where the Jewish stores had all been smashed and there were signs in the restaurants ‘No Jews or Dogs Allowed.’”

 

b.    Page 6: “He [Feuchtwanger] wrote a book, a novel called ‘The Oppermans,’ which is still an interesting book about what happened to a Jewish family under Hitler.”


HARRY BINGHAM VISITS FRENCH CONCENTRATION CAMPS
Compiled by William T. Endicott

     How many people know there were concentration camps in France during World War II?  Well,  there were at least 27 of them in southern France alone, as a report by Harry Bingham reveals.

     While the term “concentration camp” is used offciially to describe these camps, it is true they were not the same as the more deadly extermination camps in Germany and Poland, such as Auschwitz.  While people were dying in the French camps -- Harry's report says it was 17 people per day -- is was not as the result of a deliberate effort to externinate them but rather the result of inadequate food and sanitation.  But it is also true that the French camps were sometimes used as a first step towards exrermination; some inmates of the French camps were later transferred to the extermination camps.

     The French camps were begun during the Spanish civil war to house the thousands of refugees spilling over into France as a result of that conflict. After the Nazis conquered France in 1940, the camps were simply reused for the flood of refugees from the Nazis.

     From November 27 to December 1, 1940 Harry Bingham visted 5 of these camps and it is interesting to note that he had to do it on his own initiative and at his on expense.  In a December 13 letter to Howard R. Kerchner,  American Consul General Hugh Fullerton, Harry's boss, wrote:  “....As you doubtless know, Mr. Bingham's trip to the camps was in nowise official and under instructions from the Department of State.  It was, in fact, made at his own expense...”

     The following are excerpts from 28 pages of documents pertaining to that trip:


1. EXCERPTS FROM HUGH FULLERTON'S COVER MEMO

AMERICAN CONSULATE
Marseille, December 20, 1940

Subject: Concentration camps in Southern France

THE HONORABLE
     THE SECRETARY OF STATE,
          WASHINGTON.

SIR:
     I have the honor to transmit herewith a report in the form of a Memorandum prepared by Vice Consul Hiram Bingham, Jr., following a recent brief tour made by him, with my approval to five of the largest and most important concentration camps situated in the Marseille Consular District --- the camps at Gurs, Vernet, Argeles-sur-Mer, Agde and Les Miles (near Aix-en-Province).

PURPOSE OF VISIT -- IMMIGRATION PROBLEMS.

     The trip was made primarily for the purpose of giving information, with a view to reducing the volume of visa correspondence and the number of callers from the camps.

     The Consulate at Marseille has been receiving an average of four hundred letters per day from prospective immigrants or other persons desiring visas for the United States.  A large proportion of the visa correspondence comes from the thousands of persons, applicants for visas(estimated at over 7,000) who are included in the 50,000 or more foreigners, refugees and “suspects” now confined in the concentration camps... 

     ...The trip was made in the company of Dr. Donald Lowrie, Chairman of the coordinating committee of organizations doing relief work in the camps (Comite de Coordination pour l'assistance dans les Camps”).  This “Coordination Committee” was organized at a meeting at Nimes on September 20, 1940, to which were invited representatives of the following 20 organizations, all of whom have been engaged in some form of service in the internment camps:

     American Friends Service Committee,
     American Friends of Czechoslovakia,
     Belgian Red Cross,
     Centre American de Secours,
     Comite d'Assistance aus Refugies,
     Comite Central des Organizations Juives d'assistance en France,
     European Relief Fund,
     Federation Francaise des Associations Chretiennes d'Etudiantes,
     French Y.M.C.A.
     French Y.W.C.A.
     H.I.C. H. M. (HIAS-JCA Emigration Association. Jewish Inernational
               Migration Service)
     Joint Distribution Committee,
     C.R.T.
     Polish Red Cross,
     Polish Y.M.C.A.
     Secours Suisse aux enfants,
     Union des Sociietes O.S.E.
     Unitarian Service Committee,
     World's Commitee Y.M.C.A...

2.  HARRY'S REPORT

MEMORANDUM

Regarding:            Concentration camps for Foreigners in the Marseille Consular district.
Date:               December 20, 1940
Prepared by:     Vice Consul Hiram Bingham, Jr.
__________

     Of the twenty or more concentration camps located in unoccupied France (see list attached to this memorandum) five of the largest and most important were visited in the course of a trip made November 27th to December 1st, 1940.

     A rough estimate of the number of persons at the camps visted is as follows:

Camp de Gurs......................................12,800 inmates (including about 5,000 women and 1,000 children).

Camp de Vernet.....................................5,000 inmates (all men)

Camp d'Argeles...................................15,500    “ (including 3,000 women and 1,500 children).

Camp d'Agde.......................................13,060  men, women and children.  Capacity: 20,000.

Camp des Milles........................................106 inmates (men -- capacity being prepared for 2,000 -- former maximum number was about 4,000)...

...THE CAMP AT GURS -- GENERAL CONDITIONS -- HOUSING, etc...

     The camp at Gurs is located on the top of a long rolling hill about 1 1/2 kms. from the village of Gurs in the Department of Basses-Pyreneees about 15 miles from Pau.

     The day the camp was visited it was a cold, cloudy wet day -- a “typical” day at this time of year.  There are no trees or vegetation of any kind in the confines of the camp.  The whole surface is damp, exposed and muddy.   A paved highway runs for two kilometers along the side of the camp and a gravel road has been  run down the center.

     The majority of the barracks which house the present number of 12,500 internees appeared to be old and somewhat dillapidated and weather-beaten.  There were a number of different kinds, some covered with tar paper, some made of corrugated iron or shiny metal sheets and some of simple wooden boards with and without windows around the top... Judging by the few little pipes with smoke escaping, only a small proportion of the buildings could have been heated.

PERSONNEL AND NUMBERS AT GURS.

     “... about six thousand Germans had arrived directly from Germany having been expelled on very short notice and with no chance to bring with them more than a very small proportion of their belongings.   The German Jews were said to be of all ages including a large number of old men and women and young children.  About 7,000 persons had reportedly arrived from Lorraine and several hundred foreigners of all nationalities had come from other camps and cities in the non-occuped portion of France. ... The oldest inmate at Gurs was said to be 104 years old.  Several babies were born there in the past few weeks.

INSUFFICIENCY OF FOOD

     ... Each person receieved (and this applied as fas a could be seen to each of the camps visited) about 350 grams of bread each morning which had to last all day.   Such other food as was obtainable such as vegetables, sometimes “semoules” and occasionally meat was put into the soup which was served twice a day as lunch and supper ... the soup was often cold or filled with sand and dirt before reaching the barracks furthest from the kitchen.

SANITARY CONDITIONS -- POOR

     Sanitary conditons at all of the camps visted were primitive.  At Gurs the latrines consisted of out-houses raised over an open row of exposed garbage cans...To be reached one had to brave the outside cold and walk over 50 to 100 yards of muddy ground.   Such washing as was possible might be done in long  uncovered wooden troughs.  Few of the people in any of the camps had any cots to sleep on or even wooden bunks.  Many persons were even without straw to place on the floor and at the Camp at Argeles-sur-Mer many if not most of the barracks were without floors and the Commandant told us that a number of women and children had to sleep on the damp sand...at least 60 persons were understood to share each of the long wooden buildings or barracks...Some barracks, notably the barracks for women at Argeles-sur-Mer were reported to be infested with rats and mice and lice which disturbed sleep and were not pleasant to have around particularly where there were many small children.

ORGANIZATION OF CAMPS -- GROUPS DEPENDING ON SEX, NATIONALITY, ETC.

... At Gurs there are large sections of German Jews, French from Alsace and Lorraine, Spanish and some of various other nationalities including Russians, Poles, Czechs, Belgians, etc. ...

... At Argeles there are still six hundred German Jews ....They were of course the group that demanded the most and were most generally anxious to emigrate to the United States...

... A “special” camp at Argeles, more heavily guarded than the rest, housed those men who had tried to escape or had in other ways misbehaved ...

... Discipline at he Camp at Vernet appeared to be much more severe than at the other camps visited. ... One section of the camp was reserved for communists of all kinds and another for extremists and anarchists...

... POSSIBILITIES OF IMPROVEMENT

... The possibility for improvement is, of course, limitless, but with such restricted means and so much real need in the cities and country throughout the unoccupied portion of France, it is understandable that the French Government does not feel it can do much more than it is doing for the numbers of refugees and unwanted foreigners now crowding the camps.

     There is some reason to believe, according to one well-informed Frenchman, that the Germans wish conditions in the camps to be “hard” and will endeavor to keep them so by dumping thousands of new refugees from Germany and the occupied part of France into the unoccupied zone where they must necessarily complicate the whole problem.  By doing this their own concentration camps in Germany would appear in a favorable light, particularly as regards sanitation.  They also may wish to “convert” the inmates by an “example” of inefficiency and incompetent management as well as callous inhumanity on the part of persons brought up in a “democratic” system.  When the shortage of food becomes more acute, the camps may be used as centers of unrest.  Disturbances and anti-foeign sentiment may be accentuated and organized against the buyers of provisions for the camps in local markets.  Resulting riots may be used if desired as an escuse for intervention and military occupation of the whole of France. ...


3.  LIST OF CAMPS

APPENDIX No. 3 to memorandum enclosed with Despatch number 82 of December 29, 1940, regarding “Concentrattion Camps in Southern France”.
______________________

Statistics prepared by Coordination Committee
Figures based on estimates as of November 20,1940
________________________

[List summarized here from 4-page original -- ed. ]

AGDE.            Capacity 20,000 - present population:  3,060
ARGLES           Capacity 25,000 - present population: 15,500
AIGUE BLANCHE  Capacity     ?       - present population     ?
HOTEL BOMPARD Capacity    ?       - present population:     100
BRAM          Capacity 50,000 - present population:  3,000
BRENS-GAILLAC     Capacity   4,000 - present population:  3,000
CARPIANE          Capacity     ?       - present population:  3,060
CAYLUS          Capacity     ?       - present population:       ?
CHAUX D'ANE     Capacity     ?       - present population:     500
CLAIRFONDS     Capacity     ?       - present population:        ?
FORT-BRKSCOU     Capacity      100 - present population:       ?
CARRIGUES     Capacity     ?       - present population:        ?
GURS          Capacity 22,000 - present population:14,000
LES MILLES     Capacity   4,000 - present population:  3,000
LORIOL          Capacity     ?       - present population:       ?
MAS BOULBON     Capacity     ?       - present population        ?
MONTAUBAN     Capacity   1,300 - present population:     150
MONTELIMAR     Capacity     ?      - present population:      250
RECEREDOU     Capacity   3,000 - present population:     300
RIVESALTES          camp under construction
RIEUCROS          Capacity   1,500 - present population: 1,500
SEFTFONDS     Capacity   6,000 - present population: 1,000
SAINT ANTOINE     Capacity      ?    - present population:   1,000
SAINT-HIPOLYTE     Capacity   1,500 - present population: 1,000
SAINT-MARTHE     Capacity 10,000 - present population:    250
SAINTE-NICOLAS Capacity      ?      - present population:      ?
VERNET          Capacity      ?      - present population: 4,500

Total population of camps:  54,850
     of which: women: 8,341
              children: 2,295

N.B. In addition there are about 100 camps of:

     a) “prestataires”
     b) foreign workers

making a total of nearly 25,000 men.
______________________

4.  STATISTICS ON DEATHS IN THE CAMPS

APPENDIX No. 4 to memorandum enclosed with Despatch number 62 of December 20,1940 regarding “Concenrtation Camps in Southern France”.
______________________


Based on reports received from reliable persons interned in the camps.
                              November-December 1940.
GURS:

     Number of deaths: -
               About 300 deaths during November 1940
               150 deaths during first 10 days of December

               Deaths listed in one day:-
               4 from chronic heart disease
               7 old people
               1 45 yr old woman from malnutition
               1 16-yr old diabetic patient
               1 baby of 4 months
               1 two year old child from entiritis
               1 16-yr old from polycephalitis
               1 40-yr old woman from lung trouble
               ___________
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IV.  EVIDENCE OF NUMBERS OF REFUGEES SEEKING HIS HELP:

 

1.      Letter from HB IV 9/40 to his wife RMB “hectic day…at least 100 callers – and many visas to give.”

 

2.      Photo of people waiting outside the consulate.

 

V.  EVIDENCE OF DANGER TO DIPLOMATS HELPING JEWS:

 

1.      Evelyn Leopold UPDATE April 4 Reuters:

    1. Turkish consul-general on Rhodes, Selahattin Ulkumen,  had house bombed and his pregnant wife was fatally wounded when he stopped deportation of 42 Jewish families.

2.      Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg disappeared while helping Jews in Budapest.

 

3.      Feuchtwanger diary (above) shows Hiram Bingham felt in danger:

 

Sunday, 4 August Bingham hints that I should leave, he fears that it will be too dangerous for him if I stay too long in his house. After that he made a portrait of me. I read. Worked. Bingham expresses regret and explains that of course he still wants to keep me here.

 

VI.  EVIDENCE OF HIRAM BINGHAM IV’s EFFORTS TO HALT NAZI INFLUX INTO SOUTH AMERICA and that he felt ANTI-SEMITISM was part of the “NAZI DISEASE”:

1.  November 22, 1944 “CONFIDENTIAL MEMORANDUM” from Hiram Bingham, Jr. to Mr. Reed regarding The Conference Requested by Argentina.  Reports Germans taking control in Argentina and other countries in South America.  For example:

 

    1. Item No. 6: “The broad aims of the whole set up are to build up a Nazi-inspired (and controlled) block of South American States under Argentine domination.  The manufacture of arms and munitions, trucks, et cetera, is proceeding at a tremendous rate…”

 

    1. Item 12:  “Our objective…breaking up the Nazi organizations.”

 

    1. Page 3, No. 1.  “Yes.  Peron and his whole gang are completely unreliable, and, whatever happens, all countries in South America will be seed beds of Nazism after the war.  Constant vigilance will be required to weed out dangerous elements for years to come.

 

    1. Page 3, No. 3…”Dictatorship is merely one symptom of the NAZI DISEASE [ed. Caps].  Others just as important are abuse of the state of siege provisions of the constitution (including arrest of Americans and thousands of Argentines without trial), use of fear to keep people in line, abolition of Congress, interference with freedom of the press, interference with teaching of religion, abolition of political parties, ANTI-SEMITISM, [ed. Caps], rampant militarism and preparation for war, et cetera, et cetera.  But it is important to wipe out the transmitters of the disease and destroy the centers of infection before paying too much attention to the symptoms.”

 

    1. Page 3 No. 6.  “Steps toward a solution (i.e. eradication of Nazi influence)”…item e.  “Make clear to the Argentines that we are not fighting them but an outside enemy.  The same enemy that we are fighting on other fronts with tanks and guns is attacking them and us here with subversive underground weapons….fifth column organizations which planted the Nazi disease in this country…”

 

VII.  EVIDENCE OF HIRAM BINGHAM IV’s DISAPPOINTMENT OVER BEING PASSED OVER FOR PROMOTIONS, POSSIBLY DUE TO HIS INDEPENDENT ANTI-NAZI EFFORTS:

 

Typed JOURNAL  of Hiram Bingham IV, Entry of May 15, 1945:

 

“PROMOTIONS!…[sic] but not for me.. hell! it doesn’t matter but it does damn, d--- d---…[sic] career again blasted.. why?  what’s the matter?… [sic] who’s responsible?… [sic] why are these others jumped ahead?… [sic] R says it’s the price for doing what I want instead of what they want.. no real change.. but terribly discouraging… [sic] Ed says he doesn’t know why and that it can’t be my efficiency report from here.. [sic] he says he will make inquiries in Washington… [sic]”

 

See June Bingham Article quote, under IX. below.

 

VIII.  EVENTS RECOGNIZING HIRAM BINGHAM IV’S LIFE SAVING ACTIONS:

 

  1. VISAS FOR LIFE:  THE RIGHTEOUS AND HONORABLE DIPLOMATS, 1996-Present
  2. History Channel Film:  DIPLOMATS FOR THE DAMNED features HB IV and three other diplomats.  Screening events held in Los Angeles and Chicago sponsored by the Committee for Righteous Deeds in Los Angeles.
  3. American Foreign Service Association’s posthumous award to HB IV for “Constructive Dissent” personally presented by Secretary of State Colin Powell, June 27, 2002 (see listing above).

 

IX.  EVIDENCE PROVIDED ON WEBSITE HONORING HIRAM BINGHAM’S DEEDS:

 

X.  EVIDENCE OF SOME OF THE NEWSPAPER ARTICLES HONORING HIRAM BINGHAM IV’S DEEDS:

 

1.      Foreign Service Journal, June 2002, cover story:  “Harry Bingham:  Beyond The Call of Duty”

 

2.      The Washington Post, June 28, 2002:  “At State, Giving Dissent Its Due”  by Peter Slevin

 

3.      Diplomats of Uncommon Courage, Jeff Jacoby, The Boston Globe, October 20,  2002.

 

4.      “Holocaust-Era Heroes Honored”  By Edith M. Lederer, The Associated Press, United Nations, April 2000

 

5.       Los Angeles Times, Mike Downey:  “A Holocaust Story of Heroism and History’s Neglect” Regarding the History Channel documentary, “Diplomats for the Damned,” including Hiram Bingham IV.

 

6.      Riverdale Press, June 13, 2002:  “So many saved; so many lost” by June Rossbach Bingham, Jewish sister-in-law of Hiram Bingham IV (widow of his youngest brother, Hon. Jonathan B. Bingham).  She ends her article with the following words:

 

…The Harry Binghams were given one further tour of duty, to Buenos Aires.  Following that he was offered a post in Cuba, but without the advance in rank he anticipated.  Was he being punished for his previous insubordination which, by then, might have come to the attention of his superiors?  All we know is that he retired from the Foreign Service, took his growing family to Salem, Conn. where he had grown up and where he engaged in business.  He spoke little about his pre-war exploits to his six brothers seven sons and four daughters.  Only after he died in 1988 did his youngest son unearth a cache of letters from former refugees thanking Harry for their survival.  My hunch is that Harry’s time in Marseilles provided both the highest and lowest points in his long life.  Rose died a few years after him.  I wish they were going to Washington next month. [For the “Constructive Dissent” award from the American Foreign Service Association.]